Unconditional respect for every person

To talk about human rights in the light of the Gospel, we should first look at the person of Jesus and what the Gospels tell us about him. The first thing that strikes us in many episodes of Jesus’ life is how he welcomes and respects every human being, adult and child alike. He recognises, as we are taught to do, the dignity of every person, created in the image of God.

We know that he calls God “Abba” (father) and that for him, every human being is a son and daughter of God, loved by Him. As pointed out by his adversaries, he was no respecter of persons: “Master, we know that you are an honest man and that you are not afraid of anyone because human rank means nothing to you and that you teach the way of God in all honesty”. (Mark 12, 14).

More than that, he readily defends those oppressed, marginalised, sidelined, despised or ignored. Episodes like that of Zacchaeus even show us his predilection for this kind of person.

He also asks us to change our thinking and adopt the same attitude as he does: unconditional respect for every person. To this end, he goes so far as to give children as examples to adults, women as examples to men, sinners as examples to the righteous (or those who think they are), and non-Jews as examples to Jews. In so doing, he revolutionised religion and the prevailing culture where, as in our societies, hierarchies and organisational charts count. For him, each person has his/her value and dignity, and he shows this and declares it.

His commandment is clear: “Love your neighbour as yourself”. He explains: “In so far as you did this to one of the least of these brothers of mine, you did it to me … For I was hungry, and you gave me food; I was thirsty, and you gave me drink; I was a stranger and you made me welcome; lacking clothes and you clothed me, sick and you visited me” (Mt 25:40, 35-36). Jesus identifies with each person.

The Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church

The Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, this second part of the Church’s catechism, as Pope John Paul II would call it – often little known and rarely taught in catechesis – underlines this in its own way: “the roots of human rights are to be found in the dignity that belongs to each human being” (no. 153). The Compendium continues: “These rights are universal, inviolable and inalienable. Universal, because they are present in all human beings, without exception of time, place or subject. Inviolable insofar as they are inherent in the human person and in human dignity. Inalienable, insofar as ‘no one can legitimately deprive another person whoever they may be of these rights since this would do violence to their nature”.

The previous number of the Compendium already stated: “The Church’s Magisterium has not failed to note the positive value of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations on 10 December 1948, which John Paul II defined as a true ‘milestone placed on the path of humanity’s moral progress’” (no. 152).

My experience

The importance of this Universal Declaration is well-known almost everywhere in the world today. In my experience of working for Justice, Peace and the Integrity of Creation in Rwanda, I have seen how, if we base ourselves on these rights, we can reach an agreement between people from all walks of life. For example, I took part in the establishment of an Association for the Defence of Human Rights and Public Freedoms (ADL). I got involved in concrete ways, with people from other Churches and other religions – or no religion at all – in joint actions that had a great impact on the country up until the genocide of 1994.

Subsequently, I also participated in the campaign for an international ban on anti-personnel landmines in Brussels, within the framework of Pax Christi, and in conjunction with other associations and numerous other networks worldwide. This campaign was successful: the Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and their Destruction was signed in Oslo on 18 September 1997 by 122 governments in Ottawa in December and entered into force on 1 March 1999.

Our fight

For a Christian and a M.Afr., this fight against the proliferation of weapons is undoubtedly a form of solidarity – a form of fundamental commitment. We must continue this fight, as well as the battle to abolish the death penalty in all countries. According to statistics for 2021, 106 States have abolished the death penalty for all crimes, 8 have abolished it for ordinary crimes, and 50 respect the moratorium on both de jure and de facto executions, making a total of 164 States. On the other hand, the death penalty is still applied in 54 States and territories, including some African countries. We still have more work to do in this area!

I will end by mentioning another subject close to my heart: the commitment to active and evangelical non-violence. This begins with non-violent communication, Marshall Rosenberg’s method, with which many of us are familiar, but it goes much further.

We know that non-violent campaigns and actions can only overcome some of the world’s most significant structural injustices. I like to give the examples of colonialism (Gandhi), racial segregation in the United States (Martin Luther King), communism (Lech Walesa and John Paul II), apartheid in South Africa (Nelson Mandela), not forgetting, of course, slavery: didn’t Cardinal Lavigerie become famous worldwide for his anti-slavery campaign? Only active non-violence, supported by large crowds, has eradicated these plagues on humanity.

In the end, wasn’t it the attitude of Jesus and the words of the Gospel – like those in the Sermon on the Mount – that inspired the personalities mentioned and spurred crowds into action?

By: Guy Theunis, M.Afr.

Human Rights in the Light of the Gospel

When I was asked by the editor of the Petit Echo to write an article about the above topic, my first reaction was to give a negative reply. I am no more in Ghana, and even when I was there, I never had to deal with “problems to do with human rights”. When, reading again the topic, I saw the words “in the light of the Gospel” and having been a lecturer in Scripture in various formation houses, I decided that I could have a try, though it will necessarily be more theoretical than practical.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a milestone document in the history of human rights and it was proclaimed by the United Nations General Assembly in Paris on 10 December 1948. It is a secular document, hence should be acceptable to everyone, though the Christian contribution to it is undeniable, as we shall see.  It sets out, for the first time, 30 fundamental human rights to be universally protected. It has been translated into over 500 languages and applied today on a permanent basis at global and regional levels. A simple definition is: Human rights are the basic rights and freedoms that belong to every person in the world, from birth until death. They apply regardless of where you are from, what you believe or how you choose to live your life.” The five basic ones include the right to life and liberty, freedom from slavery and torture, freedom of opinion and expression, the right to work and education and 25 more. Everyone is entitled to these rights, without discrimination.

Its content has surely been described by other articles in this number, and for that reason I prefer to proceed with discussing the relationship between the two parts of the title.

Its origin and development

Above we stated that this declaration is basically secular and universal. However, it is undeniable that Christianity played a distinct role in its origin and development. The biblical origin is no doubt found in the Old Testament in Genesis 1:26-27: And God said, let us make man in our image, after our likeness… So, God created man in his own image, male and female he created them”, in this way making him infinitely superior to all other created living beings, as confirmed by Genesis 9:6, “Whoever sheds the blood of man, by man shall his blood be shed, for God made man in his own image.”

This conviction was further worked out in the Mosaic Law (e.g. the Ten Commandments) and also the ancient Prophets continually insisted on the value and dignity of each human being. This conviction surely led to the abolition of infanticide in the Roman Empire, to William Wilberforce abolishing slavery in the British Empire, to Nelson Mandela bringing to an end apartheid in S. Africa and Mother Teresa taking care of the poorest of the poor in India. Well-known is the slogan of the French Revolution of 1789, affirming Equality, Fraternity and Liberty as pillars of human society. Indeed, these three words summarise in a succinct way the basic values of Human Rights,

In the Gospels, Jesus shows himself, in word and practice, the defender of the poor and the needy, and he freely socialised with people the Pharisees considered as sinners. His treatment of women, children, and society’s down-and-outs is narrated on almost every page of the Gospels, certainly remarkable in the society in which he lived, and going beyond the social conventions of his time. He involved women in his ministry and went beyond the ancient wisdom which held that children should be seen but not heard. Instead, he welcomed and embraced them and had scathing words for any who would harm a child. He frequently praised children and their faith, and invited grown-ups to imitate them. All this shows according to American theologian Wolterstorff how human rights ultimately trace their origin to Jesus. Samuel Moyn, a Harvest Law Professor, who has written books on the topic (“Christian Human Rights”, 2015 and “The Right to Have Rights”, 2017), wrote “No one interested in where human rights came from can afford to ignore Christianity.” Indeed, without any further explanations we can affirm that from the earliest days of the Church, through the Middle Ages and the Reformation and into the modern world, followers of Jesus have played a central role in framing human rights and making them global. Many Popes have written about the subject. and local Christian leaders have made and are still making great efforts to implement Human Rights in their localities.

Today’s world

Unfortunately, the reality of today’s world presents us with another picture. Numerous countries violate the basics of human rights through discrimination, repression and war. Take for example the genocide now taking place in the Darfur Region of Sudan, the atrocities in the Kivu area of DRC or in Myanmar, not to speak about numerous cases of persecution of Christians or the abominable living conditions of so-called work-migrants in Europe. Many people, ourselves included, often close their eyes to such unacceptable realities, while continuing to enjoy their comfortable houses of residence and the food that three times every day is served on their tables.

Our Founder, Cardinal Charles Lavigerie, in a conference on African slavery in 1888, emphatically cried out, “I am a man, injustice to other men revolts my heart”. Our 2022 Chapter enumerates in a vivid way the deplorable violations of basic rights in Africa today (Capitular Acts, 2.3). It renewed the Society’s commitment to Justice, Peace and Integrity of Creation. But let us not too quickly accuse people around us, but also acknowledge that in our own Society deplorable things happen from time to time. Thank God, they are exceptional, but we need to acknowledge them and find ways and means to eradicate such evil from our own communities. That is why the Chapter invited “each Province and Section to reflect on the injustices within our Society and how we deal with our collaborators”.

By: André Schaminée, M.Afr.